- Increased Strength: In the mentioned study, the creatine group increased bench 1RM by 8kg while training the only group actually decreased by 3kg (Earnest et al., 1995). Creatine group also got 4 extra reps at 70% 1RM. Creatine is one of the most researched sports supplements with strength gains seen in both upper and lower body and using a range of dosing strategies over varying amounts of time.
- Increase Training Volume: Athletes can train longer before reaching a lactate threshold and are able to train for a longer period in total. They tend to be able to complete more reps before reaching fatigue and there is higher power output. This has been shown in athletes who supplement with creatine completing faster 15m sprints compared to those who do not supplement (Chwalbinska-Moneta, 2003; Burke et al., 2008; Rawson et al., 2011).
- Body Composition: NB! Creatine does not have a direct impact on your body composition. It can enhance training performance which can then directly change your physique. Creatine does not cause bloating. Instead, it causes muscles to become hydrated, increasing the muscle diameter, giving a more full and pumped look (Safdar et al., 2008.) This extra water does however also tend to cause an increase on the scales. Some evidence that the added water in the muscle can lead to greater muscle protein synthesis, leading to more muscle hypertrophy but WAAAAY more research is needed (Bemben et al., 2001)
Emma has a Bachelor of Science degree in physical education and biology and a Masters of Science in sport and exercise science and medicine, which both earned her a first class honours and a university class award. Additionally, she is currently doing a Ph.D. in the Dept. of Exercise Metabolism + Adaptation too.
She is also a qualified personal trainer, Olympic Weightlifting coach and AfN Nutrition coach. She has gathered the requisite scientific knowledge through her academic background, which compliments her practical experience acquired through training and coaching.Emma is currently the UK-Ireland Education Manager for a European Health company where I work with healthcare leaders across Europe, including Oxford University, Cambridge, Imperial College and Trinity College Dublin, to support in the development of novel and innovative health educational projects. References Bemben M., Bemben D., Loftiss D. & Knehans A. (2001) Creatine supplementation during resistance training in college football athletes, Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 33 (1), 1667-1673. Burke D., Candow D., Chilibeck P., MacNeil L., Roy B., Tarnopolsky M. & Ziegenfuss T. (2008) Effect of creatine supplementation and resistance-exercise training on muscle insulin-like growth factor in young adults, International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism, 18, 389-398. Chwalbinska- Moneta (2003) Effect of creatine supplementation on aerobic performance and anaerobic capacity in elite rowers in the course of endurance training, International Journal of Sports Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism, 13, 173-183. Ernst K., Schafer B. & Lampen A. (2017) Creatine and creatine forms intended for sports nutrition, Molecular Nutrition in Food Research, 61 (6), 1-18. Kreider R., Melton C., Rasmussen C., Greenwood M., Lancaster S., Cantler E., Milnor P. & Almada A. (2003) Long-term creatine supplementation does not significantly affect clinical markers of health in athletes, Mol Cell Biochem, 244 (1), 95-104. Rawson E., Stec M., Frederickosn S. & Miles M. (2011) Low-dose creatine supplementation enhances fatigue resistance in the absence of weight gain, Nutrition, 27, 451-455. Safdar A., Yardley N., Snow R., Melov S. & Tarnopolsky M. (2008) Global and targeted gene expression and protein content in skeletal muscle of young men following short-term creatine monohydrate supplementation, Physiology Genomics, 32 (2), 219-228.